- What Exactly Are Terpenes?
- Bottom Line: Myrcene, Should You Be Using It?
- The Future Of Terpenes
- Summary: What Makes Myrcene Special?
- Most Popular Terpenes At Rare Terpenes
- How To Maximize Terpenes In Your Dabs
- Study Indicates That Use Of Some Cbd Products May Result In Cannabis
Research has shown that myrcene has potent anti-inflammatory effects. A study that was conducted in 2002 showed that myrcene has sedative as well as muscle relaxing benefits. Myrcene is a natural hydrocarbon molecule with 25 bonds; it is an acyclic monoterpene with an acyclic structure. Monoterpenes have a simple structure and are commonly precursors to more complex terpenes.
These properties, in addition to its pleasant scent, are the reason why household cleaners are often formulated with limonene. While CBD research has massively expanded in the last decade, cannabis research is still prohibited federally. So those few rare studies in the U.S. don’t receive grants or any means of government funding and are wholly privately funded in legal states.
Though they do smell and taste delicious , terpenes are great for more than just their attractive aromatic profiles. Pinene – It is quite a common terpene Full Spectrum Tincture that offers a turpentine aroma. The terpene is responsible to reduce the risk of infestations and also has antibacterial and antiseptic properties.
Similar to other terpenes, myrcene is believed to produce anti-inflammatory effects, in addition to other health benefits. More than a hundred and twenty terpenes are identified in the cannabis plant, promoting various health benefits, such as boosting your energy, relaxing, or helping you sleep. In this short review, we will explore the latest evidence supporting potential myrcene use and its benefits.
An easy way to mix myrcene into a recipe is by simply adding some mango or mango juice into it, or on the side. According to researchers, myrcene has pain-relieving effects for individuals suffering from migraines. Myrcene, along with linalool and eucalyptol , was discovered in one 2008 study to help protect human cells from neurotoxins that can produce genetic damage that leads to cancer.
Myrcene is also known to be responsible for the so-called couch-lock effect, which is the sedative daze-like sensation sometimes reported by cannabis consumer. Rate of cancer grows, any anticancer properties of cannabis are fundamental to investigate further. Potent anti-inflammatory agent when applied topically and sprayed in the lungs.
Skywalker OG – This popular strain can also be found listed as “Skywalker OG Kush.” It was bred using cannabis originating out of Asia and Amsterdam. Skywalker OG is used as a powerful sedative that’s touted to be highly effective in treating pain and insomnia. The myrcene content of hops continues to rise as the hops ripen, whereas humulene concentrations remain the same. As the most fragrant of the oil found in hops, myrcene is responsible for the familiar aroma found in beers from around the world.
Randy’s Remedy, a line of botanically complete products made with natural cannabinoids from hemp and other botanicals. Bisabolol has a light, sweet floral aroma and is known to have antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, and anti-irritant Full-Spectrum CBD Gummies vs CBD Isolate Gummies effects. Bisabolol has also shown to be a pro-apoptotic agent for acute leukemia cells. Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek word meaning “falling off”) is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Some people describe it as smelling the scent of clove or musk, while others perceive a balsam fragrance in it. Aside from being common in hemp, this terpene is found in hops used in beer — which is why it may be experienced as having a peppery or spicy taste. We’ll even share a list of popular strains that tout Myrcene as one of the top three terpenes that affects flavor and aroma. Nonetheless, True Terpenes sources their terpenes from non-cannabis resources from around the world, steam-distilling the terpenes into their potent isolate forms.
Myrcene is one of the main terpenes found in the cannabis plant, often the most common, and certainly one of the most researched. Terpenes – sometimes known as isoprenoids – are molecules derived from isoprene, so they are considered as hydrocarbons. They can contain 10 carbon atoms (like the compound we are discussing here – and then we’ll be talking about monoterpenes), or 15 carbon atoms, which are the so-called sesquiterpenes. Linalool – It is the most common terpene present in over 200 different strains of cannabis. It creates a spicy, floral mixture and has intense relaxing properties.
There is, however, evidence to support myrcene having sedative and calming effects. Studies with mice have also shown myrcene to be a muscle relaxant and an anticonvulsant, which could help with seizures. Myrcene is also a major terpene in lemongrass, and research shows lemongrass essential oil to have beneficial anxiolytic effects in calming anxiety — which speaks to myrcene’s anti-anxiety properties. While some terpenes like linalool promote relaxation, others like limonene promote focus and alertness. The differences between terpenes can be subtle, but they add great depth to the plant. More importantly than the taste or smell, terpenes may offer additional medical benefits.
Regardless of whether you are a medical marijuana patient in Las Vegas or a recreational marijuana consumer, it’s important to familiarize yourself with the effects of cannabis and cannabis products. The myrcene terpene provides many therapeutic benefits and has long held a place in folk medicine. As natural compounds in cannabis, they haveanti-inflammatory effects, providing significant inflammation relief in humans. Patients with arthritis or Crohn’s disease notice a reduction in inflammations when they use pinene-rich cannabis strains such as Blue Dream, Strawberry Cough, Island Sweet, Jack Herer, etc. Terpineol refers to any one of a class of four monoterpenes including alpha-terpineol.
What Exactly Are Terpenes?
Research suggests myrcene also possesses anxiolytic, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. We know of thousands of unique terpenes, all with varied smells and effects. These terpenes work in harmony to give different strains their complicated scents. The terpene also plays a vital role in forming the antibiotic potential of other terpenes. Inflammation is a symptom of and the root of wide array of different ailments. Consider consuming a Myrcene-dominant cannabis strain if inflammation is a chronic issue in your life.
Interested in finding out for yourself what the entourage effect feels like? Studies show that adding linalool to a high-quality CBD oil will give it more than just a pleasant scent, it will make it significantly more relaxing. Consumers sometimes mix terpenes and CBD oil together to increase the effects of CBD. Terpenes mixed with CBD amplify and targetthe benefits of both the terpenes and the CBD. That’s what is referred to as the “entourage effect,” also called cannabis synergy in the scientific literature. Limonene usually occurs in small quantities, generally between 1-2%.
While some terpenes promote relaxing effects, others are thought to promote focus or uplifting effects. You will find many different terpenes in cannabis, and it only depends on the preferred strain. If you want marijuana to be more effective, you should aim that the levels of cannabinoids and terpenes are balanced optimally. Like other plants, weed also has terpenes, organic substances that give the plant its specific flavor and scent. Granddaddy Purple – After being paralyzed in a motorcycle accident, Ken Estes turned to cannabis for its natural, therapeutic effects.
The effects of the aroma can seem almost as intoxicating as ingesting the substance. From light florals to heavy diesel smells, marijuana aromas swirl in the air as you luxuriate in the head, body, and soul experience of your favorite strains. Several compounds in the marijuana plant create the smell, taste, and look of the plant.
When we say not all cannabis products are equal, it couldn’t be more true thanks to this insight on the effects of terpenes. One of the tests conducted on hemp extracts will assess the terpene content and will display the concentration and ratio of the predominant terpenes in the sample. You can use this information to make a more informed guess on how the cannabis product may affect you. Terpenes are essentially what give plants their aroma, flavor, and sometimes pigment.
Bottom Line: Myrcene, Should You Be Using It?
Linalool is also found in lavender, mint, cinnamon and coriander. What’s interesting is that just like those aromatic herbs, it has very strong sedative and relaxing properties. For therapeutic purposes, limonene is known to improve mood and reduce stress. Researchers also found it to have antifungal and antibacterial properties and one research even found it to have a role in reducing tumor size.
Delta 3 Carene has anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial benefits. It’s a good idea to proceed slowly when trying new terpenes and cautiously approach your target terpene dosage. If you have had reactions to chamomile, then there is a good chance you may be allergic to bisabolol. Bisabolol is the main active ingredient in chamomile containing products.
A study in 2018 looked at the distinct compositions of terpenoids in certain cannabis strains and concluded that terpenes also had acute anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties in animal models. It also has some very special properties, including lowering the resistance across the blood to brain barrier, allowing itself and many other chemicals to cross the barrier easier and more quickly. In the case of cannabinoids, like THC, it allows it to take effect more quickly. More uniquely still, β-Myrcene has been shown to increase the maximum saturation level of the CB1 receptor, allowing for a greater maximum psychoactive effect. For most people, the consumption of a fresh mango, 45 minutes before inhaling cannabis, will result in a faster onset of psycho activity and greater intensity.
It has been described as having a musk or clove like aroma with a peppery “flavor”. The preliminary results of this study are promising for anyone suffering from stress or sleeplessness. High-myrcene cannabis strains may potentially provide strong sedation and help people get a good night’s sleep. When tested as a part of balsam fir essential oil, the humulene terpene showed to be an effective killer of cancer cells.
High-limonene weed strains could unlock those medical benefits, but they can also influence the high effects in subtle ways. Limonene is easily absorbed into the bloodstream after inhalation, allowing for rapid onset of its effects. Humulene is a terpene that can be found in herbs such as hops and coriander. It has a very woody, earthy fragrance that is often quite sharp to the smell. Its reported medicinal benefits include being both a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory.
However one chooses to take their terpenes, the science is revealing that terpene extracts are useful products with beneficial therapeutic effects. In addition to cannabis, myrcene can be found in parsley, thyme, lemongrass, hops, cardamom, and mangos. Myrcene is often responsible for a peppery or spicy quality in beer.
The Future Of Terpenes
Not only do they givedifferent strains of hempand cannabis their unique smells, researchers believe they also offer benefits on their own and work in conjunction with compounds like CBD. Myrcene is one of the most common terpenes found in cannabis, representing over 20% of the terpene profile in most common strains. Outside of cannabis, myrcene is abundant in mangos, hops, and lemongrass. A report from the National Toxicology Program found that high doses of myrcene administered to lab rats had carcinogenic effects. Male rats experienced higher incidence of liver and kidney cancer after treatment with daily doses of myrcene. However, these results have not been replicated in a human model when myrcene is given in normal dietary doses.
This high sensation is due primarily to THC, the psychoactive compound contained in most strains of cannabis, but there is so much more that cannabis can do for the mind and body beyond an elevated mood. Β-Myrcene is an acyclic monoterpene found in the essential oils of different plants, including mango, rosemary, hops, citrus, lemongrass, laurel, thyme and, of course, cannabis. It is also found in the Brazilian medicinal plant, Myrcia sphaerocarpa. This plant is traditionally used to treat diabetes, intestinal diseases , and hypertension. Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants such as basil, cloves, cinnamon leaves, black pepper, lavender and cotton. Caryophyllene has been found to elicit significant neuroprotection by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities mediated by activation of the CB2 receptors in the brain.
Other studies have shown that linalool can be an aid in pain relief. People searching “what are terpenes,” “cannabis terpenes,” and “marijuana terpenes” may run into two terms, terpenes and terpenoids, which seem like they might mean the same thing. Terpenes and terpenoids are both secreted in trichomes and produce fragrant aromas, but terpenoids are CBD Gummies vs CBD Capsules more chemically complex. One of the most well-balanced hybrid cannabis strains currently on the market, Sunset Sherbet provides both sativa and indica-like effects. With the presence of the cannabinoid CBG and THC levels reaching up to 19%, Banana Kush produces beneficial therapeutic effects for both recreational and medical cannabis consumers.
Medical cannabis users say they see a significant reduction in symptoms related to physical pain, anxiety, nausea, and depression. Recreational users will enjoy the clear-minded, energetic, and uplifting effects of this strain. This sativa dominant hybrid boasts a tropical and piney flavour and aroma. Medical cannabis users who use Shishkaberry say they see a significant decrease in depression, ADD/ADHD, physical pain, and anxiety. One of the most outstanding capabilities of myrcene is how it increases THC molecules that reach CB1 receptors in the nervous system and brain. Myrcene produces intense sedating effects, which results in less pain .
Terpenes are classified as mono, di, tri, tetra, and sesquiterpenes based on the number of isoprene units the terpenes have. Used widely in natural folk medicine, studies are pursuing them for modern medical use. Terpenes are the properties that create your favorite marijuana strain. Terpinolene, while common in quite a few strains of cannabis, is also the terpene that has the lowest levels.
Or if you can’t get your hands on a marijuana strain high in myrcene or a myrcene extract, munch on a mango before you take your cannabis to get a similar effect. Myrcene has been used as a sedative in folk medicine for many years, with plants like lemongrass and hops – both of which contain this terpene – often taken as muscle relaxants and sleeping aids. In one study, high doses of myrcene caused mice to increase their sleep time by about 250 percent, yet there’s very little research as to whether or not myrcene in cannabis produces a similar effect. As one of the most common precursors to other terpenes, Myrcene is a monoterpene. People say Myrcene acts differently in various circumstances and situations. The flavor profile and aroma emitted is unique, but it can be combined with other terpene isolates or found in various plant-based sources, as well as, cannabis strains.
Conventional wisdom divides cannabis into three major categories Indica, Sativa, and Hybrids. While indica strains predominantly have a relaxing and sleep-inducing effect, sativa strains are energy-boosting varieties that can enhance focus and creativity. So far, research suggests that the cannabinoid composition and ratio are alone the deciding factors for the different types of effects possible from a strain. As research to understand the value of terpenes in cannabis expands, we get to know how crucial these compounds are for the health benefits and effects of a particular strain. Terpenes are naturally occurring oil in the cannabis plant that is responsible for the aroma and taste. These compounds are secreted by the same glands responsible for the production of cannabinoids.
A more comprehensive description can be found in a recent study by Ibrahim et al. , which examined three varieties of C. One variety has high THC content , the other one with high CBD content , and the last was an intermediate variety containing both THC and CBD at a significant level. Β-Myrcene content was higher in the intermediate variety than the other two varieties (0.87–1.32 mg/g).
Summary: What Makes Myrcene Special?
As discussed above, a major source includes lemongrass, as well as hops, bay leaves, thyme, and basil. As discussed in other articles on our site, Mangoes are a good source of myrcene and are promoted as a complement to the consumption of cannabis in enhancing the high and aiding in sleep. Limonene is a bright, citrus-smelling terpene with hints of lemon and orange. It’s found in common plants such as peppermint, citrus, and juniper too.
Most Popular Terpenes At Rare Terpenes
The aroma alone can relax any jagged, disjointed mood, connecting the mind to warm, toasty notes that crackle like a campfire. But what are the olfactory characteristics and potential benefits of myrcene? Similarly, a reputable lab states that myrcene allows for chemicals in general to cross the blood-brain barrier. While there is no evidence for this, borneol has substantial scientific evidence to cause this effect. Again, more research is needed, but it’s easy to see how even small amounts of caryophyllene can, when combined with the sedative power of THC and CBD, contribute to your desire to catch some Zs.
A 2011 study examined the antiviral properties of Pinene, further highlighting Pinene’s potential contribution to the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis. It is crucial to store your cannabis flowers in clear, sealable mason jars, and not in plastic baggies with a mind to protecting the gentle cannabis terpenes. Plastic bags tend to absorb terpenes or may easily lead to terpenes leaking off, too. That’s certainly one of the first lessons marijuana growers learn on their journey of cultivating the ancient cannabis plant, no matter if it comes to indoors, outdoors, or greenhouse operations. With a chemical formula C10H16, Pinene is known to possess a boiling point of 313 degrees Fahrenheit . It is good to keep in mind that Pinene has one of the lowest boiling points of all cannabis terpenes, and therefore, Pinene is commonly the first terpene to be lost due to evaporation.
We recommend trying different types of marijuana with a doctor and dispensary’s supervision. They can assist you in making informed decisions and monitor your side effects. The cannabis plant contains hundreds of compounds that work together to create its medicinal Alondra properties. You may know about cannabinoids, the main components studied in marijuana. These compounds also have a role to play in the healing powers of marijuana. Some terpenes have anxiety-relieving properties that improve cannabis’ ability to calm you down.
Terpenes may also play a part in the entourage effect and help other cannabinoids and terpenes perform more effectively and efficiently. Aside from cannabis and hemp, there are hundreds of other plants, herbs, and fruits that produce myrcene in high quantities. Below is a list of some of the most common myrcene-producing organisms. In this read, we’ll be looking at myrcene from cannabis, what other plants produce it, and some of the potential benefits this terpene has to offer. Even if you haven’t heard of myrcene, you’ve probably come across it before.
How To Maximize Terpenes In Your Dabs
However, for cannabis users, myrcene is biosynthesized right there within the trichomes of their favorite strains. Β-Myrcene (pronounced “beta-myrcene”) is classified as a monoterpene; it is an element found in the essential oils of fruits, vegetables, and herbs. More impressively, many monoterpenes are also proving effective against battling cancer in both early and advanced stages.
Medical marijuana patients can find Humulene in indica-dominant OG Kush, sativa-dominant Sour Diesel, and hybrid White Widow. Another reason myrcene carries so much medicinal power is because of its relationship with THC. Due to the entourage effect, strains high in myrcene are great medicinal options. A group of scientists performed research on mice and found that this terpene reduces the voluntary intake of alcohol. They even recommended caryophyllene for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Besides its analgesic and anxiolytic properties, some studies have found that caryophyllene has a very promising role in alcohol rehabilitation.
Unlike any terpene that we know of thus far, caryophyllene’s molecular structure allows it to bind directly to your body’s CB2 receptors, which are found in most organs. So, while it doesn’t provide cerebral effects, working with these receptors shows serious potential in therapeutic values like inflammation reduction and pain relief as a whole. It has even shown assistance in helping those with stomach ulcers due to its gastric cytoprotective properties as well as being anti-malarial.
Cbd Oil For Epilepsy
Myrcene expression is commonly found in Indica and Hybrid cannabis strains. Many users consume Indica and Hybrid cannabis strains for relaxation and sleep — both well-recognized benefits of myrcene alone. This terpene is a real star, it is the most abundant terpene among cannabis strains. It is actually the dominant terpene in over 40% of commercially available strains of weed and is responsible for many of those key characteristics of your high. Myrcene enhances the flow of other cannabinoids to the brain, making it a key player in the entourage effect.
Interestingly honeybees produce the terpene geraniol which can also be found in cannabis. Bees use geraniol to mark the location of nectar-producing flowers. From now on, your knowledge of terpenes will inform every one of your cannabis and CBD decisions.
They are usually infused into CBD oils to provide it with desired fragrances aside from modulating the effects of CBD and other cannabinoids. For example, CBD is known to counteract the psychotropic potential of THC, which may prove useful for people who are sensitive to high doses of the latter. CBD can be used to balance the intoxication from THC, resulting in a more clear-headed sensation. Here are the most abundant terpenes in CBD oil — with their health benefits explained. Several hundreds of terpenes have been identified globally, and over 100 of them have been linked to hemp plants. However, only a few terpenes occur in hemp in concentrations significant enough to be important for our health.
Click HERE to book an appointment with one of our cannabis experts. This terpene’s suspected entourage effect partners are CBD and THC. The terpene’s suspected entourage effect partners are CBD, CBG, and THC.
I have not come across any reports of adverse effects from the small concentrations of natural borneol present in some CBD cannabis. Borneol may be an important “helper” compound that makes cannabinoids more effective. It is believed that camphene may be a future treatment for cardiovascular Delta 8 Products disease because of its cholesterol-lowering effects. Camphene has several promising cancer benefits under medical investigation. Camphene appears to have significant antitumor and antioxidant properties. Eucalyptol has respiratory effects and anti-inflammatory benefits.
It has sedative and relaxing effects, which may assist with inflammation and pain alleviation. Strains with a lot of myrcene might be beneficial for people suffering from tension, sleeplessness, or painful problems. When searching for a high myrcene strain, choose an indica or hybrid variety with strong indica origins. “This specially anti-inflammatory terpene can be paired with herbal concoctions containing lemongrass or hops for a strong tranquilizer that may put those numbered sheep to rest,” according to Leafly. Terpenes, also known as isoprenoids, are the essential oils responsible for cannabis’s unique aromatic profile. In the cannabis plant, these essential oils ward off insect predators and protect them from environmental stresses.
Though research is limited, the supposed effects outlined in studies like Dr. Ethan B. Russo’s in 2011 could have major impacts on both physical and mental health, thanks to the entourage effect. A recent 2017 study from Konkuk University in Seoul, South Korea looked at terpenes from the forest and found an association between certain terpenes in plants and different biological reactions. Terpenes have become a popular part of the marijuana conversation, as legal usage becomes more widespread.
The synergy of the terpene myrcene with THC produces full-body hypnotic and sedative effects. If you want to enjoy all of the benefits of myrcene, choose strains high in myrcene. Some popular myrcene-heavy strains include Gorilla Glue, Mendo Breath, and Skywalker OG. When it comes to its potential therapeutic value, some animal studies have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as support with heart health. Though research is limited now, such potential poses huge importance for further studies.
It’s also the active element of lemongrass that gives it sedating properties. CBDA or Cannabidiolic Acid is a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis that has a wide range of potential benefits. Today we are taking a close look at one of the minor terpenes found in the cannabis plant – Nerolidol. A recent treat from Silver Stem’s finest grow team, Purple Diesel is probably one of the best looking and best smelling strains out there. We will definitely hear a lot more about terpenes in the upcoming years. There is plenty of research taking place to learn more about this group of molecules and its potential, both for medical and recreational purposes.
Study Indicates That Use Of Some Cbd Products May Result In Cannabis
Some Indica strains they do have CBD but they’re still dominantly predominantly THC over the CBD. In fact, the breeding of Indica strains in the 1960s is what introduced a lot of the Myrcene that we have in the gene pool of cannabis today. Pinene is the most common naturally occurring terpenoid in nature and acts as both an anti-inflammatory & bronchodilator to help improve the airflow and respiratory functions. Therapeutically, this terpene is most responsible for feelings of lethargy, sleep and apathy.
If you want to experience caryophyllene in all its glory, try rolling a joint, packing a bowl, or making hash with one of these tasty strains. Now, research indicates that very high doses of caryophyllene may have a sedative effect in laboratory mice. To make things as clear as possible, we discuss the effects and benefits of CBD Gummis – Was ist meine perfekte Dosis? caryophyllene as if they were the same thing . But don’t let caryophyllene’s lack of notoriety and difficult pronunciation fool you — it’s an important part of the cannabis experience. That’s because caryophyllene is a chemical component of cannabis that often gets lost in the glow of its cannabinoid cousins THC and CBD.
The terpene has shown to provide anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and sedating effects both on its own and in combination with cannabinoids. Terpinolene can be found d’acheter du CBD in cannabis strains such as Lemon Lights, Tangie, Jack Herer, and more. This terpene may be another tumor-fighting agent working to suppress the spread of cancer cells.
How Common Is It In Cannabis?
Some studies have shown that naloxone which is an antidote for opioids blocks the action of myrcene suggesting that myrcene has activity at the opioid receptor. This means that consuming myrcene-rich strains could offer significant pain relief. It is common for Germans, who are the second largest hops growers in the world , to use myrcene-rich hops preparations as a sleep aid. What truly affects the way a strain will make you feel is the cannabinoids and terpenes it contains. Strains high in pinene and limonene typically align well with the effects of sativa-dominant strains.
Complicating this is the fact that there may be no consistency of constituent amounts or ratios from one batch of a strain to another, despite their same name. In addition, different people are likely to respond differently to the same cannabis constituents at different times and, still differently than another person’s response to the same constituents. Because terpenes are volatile and they are aromatic , they act through the olfactory system . The olfactory system consists of the nose and the nasal cavities which support the olfactory mucous membrane for the perception of smell.
Pinene is one of the most most commonly occurring terpene in nature. They are also found in pine needles, conifers, and many herbs such as parsley, basil, and dill. These terpenes are also the major constituents of turpentine, and are abundant in rosemary and lavender. Α-pinene is the main compound found in frankincense , myrtle, juniper, camphor, and conifers.
Did you know that terpenes in cannabis share a precursor with cannabinoids that naturally bind to receptors in our brain? Together, terpenes and plant-derived cannabinoids produce some of the most beneficial effects of marijuana. The entourage effect pertains to the terpenoid- phytocannabinoid synergy that supercharges the therapeutic index of marijuana. Many medicinal cannabis products are brought to market specifically because of their unique blend of cannabinoids and terpenes.
Pinene is consumed regularly in fruits and vegetables and believed to have minimal side effects when consumed in quantities you’d expect to find in food or cannabis flower. Notice that alpha-pinene and beta-pinene make up nearly half of the entire terpene list. Linalool is also believed by medical science to affect the distribution of white blood cells. White blood cells are the body’s immune system response to infection.